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Here, we fabricated PVs in a solar cell configuration using the patterned micropatterned perovskite films. The initial properties of a micropatterned PSC were measured under an external quantum efficiency (EQE) measurement system. The EQE at 600 nm showed a promising saturation. The maximum EQE of 9.0%, corresponding to Jsc=24.71 mA/cm2 and fill factor (FF) of 0.56, was achieved by exposing the perovskite films with different patterns to 500 mW/cm2 light (Fig. 6b ) 55 . The EQE curve shown in Fig. 6c indicates that the EQE of a PSC device with uniform perovskite film coverage is almost the same as that of a planar (unpatterned) perovskite PSC, despite the low coverage of the micropatterned perovskite films (0.02 cm2). To investigate the microscopic morphology of the micropatterned perovskite film, we removed the template-patterned perovskite films to evaluate the perovskite morphology, as shown in Fig. 6a. Despite the micropatterned perovskite film coverage area, patterns with the 100-μm-diameter holes were still observed. However, the thickness of the perovskite film at the structural core was reduced to only 10 nm at the rim of the micropatterned hole (Fig. 6a and Supplementary Fig. 4). We attribute the different thicknesses of the perovskite film between the holes and the unpatterned region to the morphological difference between the surrounding perovskite and the perovskite in the micropatterned hole. In the case of low-perovskite-content micropatterned holes, no perovskite was present at the core, since the perovskite micropatterned film showed surface cracks (Fig. 6b and c), resulting in nonuniform coverage (Supplementary Fig. 5). In the case of perovskite-rich micropatterned holes, as the amount of perovskite is sufficiently high, the crack is not formed at the rim, as shown in Fig. 6a, and the perovskite film is uniformly covered. In addition, we measured the transparency of each perovskite film (Fig. 6d and Supplementary Fig. 6). The transparency of the micropatterned perovskite film was similar to that of the planar (unpatterned) perovskite films. To test the initial PV characteristics in a solar cell configuration, it is necessary to fill the micropatterned hole with the perovskite without collapse. Therefore, we improved the step of removing the template-patterned perovskite film by using the swelling-induced lift-off (SILO) method. A polyelectrolyte coating (PEC) was applied on the patterned substrate using a spreading solution to swell the edges of the micropatterns (Fig. 6a and Supplementary Fig. 7). A biphasic electrolyte was applied around the microholes to prevent the collapse of the micropatterned perovskite film during the swelling process (Fig. 6a and Supplementary Fig. 7).
Windows 10 Pro V1803 RS4 3in1 Fr X64 (24 Mai 2018) (Windows) Crack